McCrae's "In Flanders Fields" remains to this day one of the most memorable
war poems ever written. It is a lasting legacy of the terrible battle in the
Ypres salient in the spring of 1915. Here is the story of the making of that
Although he had been a doctor for years and had served in the South African
War, it was impossible to get used to the suffering, the screams, and the
blood here, and Major John McCrae had seen and heard enough in his dressing
station to last him a lifetime.
Flanders Field Booklet with photos
As a surgeon attached to the 1st Field Artillery Brigade, Major McCrae, who
had joined the McGill faculty in 1900 after graduating from the University
of Toronto, had spent seventeen days treating injured men -- Canadians,
British, Indians, French, and Germans -- in the Ypres salient.
It had been an ordeal that he had hardly thought possible. McCrae later
wrote of it:
"I wish I could embody on paper some of the varied sensations of that
seventeen days... Seventeen days of Hades! At the end of the first day if
anyone had told us we had to spend seventeen days there, we would have
folded our hands and said it could not have been done."
One death particularly affected McCrae. A young friend and former student,
Lieut. Alexis Helmer of Ottawa, had been killed by a shell burst on 2 May
1915. Lieutenant Helmer was buried later that day in the little
cemetery outside McCrae's dressing station, and McCrae had performed the funeral
ceremony in the absence of the chaplain.
The next day, sitting on the back of an ambulance parked near the dressing
station beside the Canal de l'Yser, just a few hundred yards north of Ypres,
McCrae vented his anguish by composing a poem. The major was no stranger to
writing, having authored several medical texts besides dabbling in poetry.
In the nearby cemetery, McCrae could see the wild poppies that sprang up in
the ditches in that part of Europe, and he spent twenty minutes of precious
rest time scribbling fifteen lines of verse in a notebook.
A young soldier watched him write it. Cyril Allinson, a twenty-two year old
sergeant-major, was delivering mail that day when he spotted McCrae. The
major looked up as Allinson approached, then went on writing while the
sergeant-major stood there quietly. "His face was very tired but calm as we
wrote," Allinson recalled. "He looked around from time to time, his eyes
straying to Helmer's grave."
When McCrae finished five minutes later, he took his mail from Allinson and,
without saying a word, handed his pad to the young NCO. Allinson was moved
by what he read:
"The poem was exactly an exact description of the scene in front of us both.
He used the word blow in that line because the poppies actually were being
blown that morning by a gentle east wind. It never occurred to me at that
time that it would ever be published. It seemed to me just an exact
description of the scene."
In fact, it was very nearly not published. Dissatisfied with it, McCrae
tossed the poem away, but a fellow officer retrieved it and sent it to
newspapers in England. The Spectator, in London, rejected it, but Punch
published it on 8 December 1915.
Story reprinted from http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/flanders.htm