The Responsibility Sharing Report presents the Department of Defenseís
annual assessment of the relative contributions toward the common defense
and mutual security by our NATO allies, our Pacific allies (Japan and
the Republic of Korea), and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations.
The cornerstone of effective alliance relationships is the fair and
equitable sharing of the full range of mutual security responsibilities,
and the appropriate balancing of costs and benefits.
Assessments in this Report cover responsibility sharing contributions
across a broad range of categories, including defense spending, NATO defense
modernization spending, military forces (ground, naval, and air), multinational
peace operations, cost sharing, and foreign assistance. National contributions
are generally assessed relative to ability to contribute by measuring
each nationís share of total allied contributions relative to its corresponding
share of total allied Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or labor force. A nation
is considered to be doing its fair share in a particular category
if its share of total contributions is in balance with its share of total
GDP or labor force. TRIBUTIONS TO THE WAR ON
The quantitative data presented in this Report does not reflect nationsí
contributions to the war on terrorism. These contributions will be reflected
in the 2003 report. Instead, a narrative description of some of the allied
contributions is provided.
- NATO responded swiftly to the September 11, 2001 terror attacks,
invoking Article V - the collective defense provision - of the 1949
Washington Treaty the next day.
- On October 4, NATO approved eight measures that "operationalized"
the invocation of Article V, including deployment of NATO AWACS aircraft
to support operations against terrorism. These aircraft began deploying
to the United States on October 9.
- The UK and France contributed support aircraft to the air campaign
over Afghanistan, deployed ground troops inside the country before
the Taliban regime was overthrown, and dispatched naval forces to
the Indian Ocean for maritime surveillance/interdiction operations.
- Other NATO nations, most notably Canada, Italy and the Netherlands,
also sent naval forces to the Indian Ocean; Canada, Denmark, Germany,
and Norway deployed special forces inside Afghanistan; and the Czech
Republic has deployed a chemical defense unit to the region.
- The NATO allies provided the bulk of the sixteen-nation International
Security Assistance Force in Kabul.
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
- Japan deployed a naval task force to the Indian Ocean to provide
logistical and intelligence support the first time that Japanese Self
Defense Forces units have been sent abroad to support an ongoing combat
- The Republic of Korea provided a medical formation, C-130 transport
aircraft, and an amphibious landing ship.
- Japan and the Republic of Korea provided significant emergency financial
assistance and humanitarian aid to Afghanistan, Pakistan, and other
adjoining countries. Both also provided enhanced security at U.S.
bases within their territory.
- The GCC states provided critical support for operations in Afghanistan
by granting overflight rights, and allowing the United States to base
large contingents of aircraft, personnel, and equipment in their territory.
- Most GCC states increased security at bases hosting U.S. forces,
provided key air traffic control and fuel storage services, and covered
increased U.S. billeting costs.
- The GCC nations contributed generously to humanitarian operations
in and around Afghanistan, and some provided significant economic
assistance to Pakistan. They have also played a key role in efforts
to block terrorist financing, including the seizure of al-Qaida financial
Collectively, the non-U.S. NATO allies contributed roughly their fair
share or more of defense spending, active-duty military personnel,
peace operations personnel and funding, military forces, NATO Reaction
Forces, and foreign assistance. However, they provided substantially less
than their fair share of military transport aircraft capacity and
- Defense Spending as a Percentage of GDP (Chart
I-1): Overall, the non-U.S. NATO members spent an average
of 1.9 percent of GDP on defense in 2001 as compared to 2.0 percent
in 2000. Turkey, Greece, France, the United Kingdom, the Czech Republic,
Portugal, Poland, and Italy ranked at or above this average. All other
Alliance members fell below average, highlighting that there is clearly
scope for greater effort in this area.
- NATO Modernization Spending: Non-U.S. NATO members spent
an average of 19 percent of their defense budgets on modernization
programs in 2001. Turkey, the United Kingdom, Norway, the Czech Republic,
and France ranked above average, while all other members fell below
average. Nonetheless, nine allies increased their percentages in 2001.
- Military Forces: Most NATO allies contributed more than their
fair share in at least one of the following categories: active-duty
military personnel, ground combat capability, naval tonnage, and combat
aircraft capability. Greece and Turkey contributed far more than their
fair share in all four categories, while Canada contributed
less than its fair share in all four. Greece contributed its
fair share of military transport aircraft capacity and Turkey
contributed substantially more than its fair share of military
transport aircraft capacity and tanker aircraft. The remaining NATO
allies contributed substantially less than their fair share
in both categories.
- NATO Reaction Forces: Fourteen allies contributed more than
their fair share of least one category of NATO Reaction Forces
(ground, air, and naval) - and several allies in all three. In contrast,
Germany contributed less than its fair share in all three categories.
- Multinational Peace Operations: Our NATO allies made strong
contributions to multinational peace operations in terms of personnel
and funding. The Czech Republic was the only ally that contributed
less than its fair share in both categories.
- Foreign Assistance: Eleven allies provided their fair
share or more of foreign assistance. Italy contributed less than
its fair share, as did less wealthy countries: the Czech Republic,
Greece, Poland, and Turkey. Hungary is a net foreign aid recipient.
- Cost Sharing: Italy and Germany, the only NATO allies with
substantial numbers of U.S. troops stationed on their soil, offset
37 percent and 21 percent (respectively) of U.S. stationing costs.
- Japan spent one percent of GDP on defense in 2001, however its defense
budget was second only to the U.S. in absolute terms. Japan
provided substantially less than its fair share of active-duty
military personnel, military forces, and peace operations personnel.
However, this must be viewed in the light of constitutional and historical
factors that have limited the size of Japanís defense forces, and
discouraged their deployment abroad. Japan provided more funding for
foreign assistance than any other nation in this Report. It ranked
second in cost sharing, offsetting 79 percent of U.S. stationing costs
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
- The Republic of Korea (ROK) spent 2.8 percent of GDP on defense
in 2001, which is above the average of 2.4 % for all nations covered
in this report. The ROK contributed substantially more than its fair
share of military forces. The ROK contributed substantially less
than its fair share of multinational peace operations funding
and personnel, military transport aircraft capacity, tanker aircraft
and foreign assistance reflecting the focus on the North Korean threat.
The ROK offset approximately 42 percent of U.S. non-personnel stationing
costs in 2000. Under the terms of the new 2002-2004 Special Measures
Agreement, ROK offsets will increase to 50 percent by 2004.
The United States
- Defense Spending as a Percentage of GDP (Chart
I-1): The GCC nations spent larger percentages of GDP on defense
(5.8 to 16.1 percent) than any other country addressed in this Report
- Military Forces: All GCC nations contributed their fair
share or more of ground combat capability, combat aircraft capability,
and active-duty military personnel. Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE, and Kuwait
contributed their fair share or more of military transport
aircraft capacity. Saudi Arabia contributed substantially more than
its fair share of tanker aircraft.
- Multinational Peace Operations: The GCC nations contributed
substantially less than their fair share of peace operations
personnel and funding. Only the UAE contributed peace operations personnel.
- Foreign Assistance: Kuwait contributed substantially more
than its fair share of foreign assistance, ranking fourth among
all nations assessed, while Saudi Arabia and the UAE contributed substantially
less. Bahrain, Oman, and Qatar are net foreign assistance recipients.
- Cost Sharing: Saudi Arabia offset 80 percent of U.S. stationing
costs in 2000 ranking first of all nations in this Report. Kuwait
ranked third, Qatar fourth, and Oman sixth.
- Relative to its ability to contribute, the United States
contributed its fair share or better of defense spending, active-duty
military personnel, UN peace operations funding, military forces,
NATO Reaction Forces, and NATO modernization spending. The United
States contributed less than its fair share of multinational
peace operations personnel, and foreign assistance.
- The United States greatly outstrips all of its allies in a broad
range of military capabilities that are not reflected in the static
indicators assessed in this Report. The most important of these are
the United Statesí unique capabilities to deploy and sustain military
forces over long distances for extended periods; others include suppression
of enemy air defenses, precision strike, and theater ballistic missile
The Department of Defense (DoD) considers that the nations addressed
in this Report have recognized the importance of continuing to increase
their efforts to share the roles, risks, and responsibilities of defending
shared security interests. DoD will continue
to urge allied and partner nations to maintain and increase their responsibility
sharing contributions, particularly where there is scope for greater
effort. Such areas include defense spending and host nation contributions
for U.S. forces stationed overseas. Where it is appropriate to do so,
DoD will seek cost sharing arrangements in which host nations contribute
50 percent of total non-personnel stationing costs, at least as an interim