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Radio Interview with Adm. Mullen on the Pitsburgh Global Press Conference, 1410 KQV, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Presenters: Chief of Naval Operations, Adm. Michael G. Mullen
May 19, 2006

            INTRODUCTION:  Pittsburgh Global Press Conference.  Thirty minutes of conversation designed to make you better aware of the world around you.  Pittsburgh Global Press Conference is brought to you by KQV in cooperation with the World Affairs Council of Pittsburgh, a non-profit, non-partisan organization.  And now Pittsburgh Global Press Conference.


            MR. FOERSTER:  Thank you for joining us in this week’s Pittsburgh Global Press Conference, brought to you by KQV All News 1410, and the World Affairs Council Conference of Pittsburgh, a non-profit, non-partisan organization, bringing educational programs in world affairs to Pittsburgh for 75 years.  I’m Sky Foerster and your host for this week’s program.  Our focus today is the challenges facing the U.S. military, especially the United States Navy, and we are honored and delighted to have with us in the studio, Admiral Mike Mullen, who is the Chief of Naval Operations.  For those who don’t know what the Chief of Naval Operations means, just CNO.  He is America’s senior, most senior naval officer, and a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the man who’s in charge with making sure the Navy does all the things that the Navy is supposed to do.  Admiral Mullen, it’s wonderful to have you.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Well, thanks Sky, it’s great to be here.


            MR. FOERSTER:  Well, you’ve been a great, great help to us, and as you have discovered in your day here in Pittsburgh and you’re here in cooperation with us as the Pittsburgh Chapter of the Navy League, this is a huge Navy town, even though we are a few miles away from the coast.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Well, it’s actually great for me to be back in Pittsburgh.  It’s a long time since I’ve actually been here myself, but it is terrific to see the incredibly positive response.  The support, reputation of Pittsburgh in supporting the Navy is known far and wide in the Navy.  It includes as you know, one of the ships which we’ve named after this great city, our submarine USS Pittsburgh.


            MR. FOERSTER:  Somebody told me it was the best supported ship or submarine in the Navy.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  I certainly, based on my reception here today, I wouldn’t doubt that.


            MR. FOERSTER:  That’s right.  And we’re on radio and you have to say that.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Absolutely.


            MR. FOERSTER:  But it is important that you’re here, and I know we talked a little bit about this before.  This isn’t San Diego.  This isn’t Norfolk.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Right.


            MR. FOERSTER:  This isn’t the usual Navy haunts where you spend a lot of time.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Right.


            MR. FOERSTER:  Because that’s where most of the seamen are,...


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Right.


            MR. FOERSTER:  ...most of the Sailors are.  Why is it important for you to be here?  Why is it important for you to be around the country cause I know you do a lot of speaking around the country?


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Well, I think one of the most important things I can do as a service chief, representing the United States Navy, is make sure that the American people understand what their taxpayer dollars are buying.  I must be and feel responsible to be a good steward of those resources, and we’re a maritime nation going back to when we were founded over 230 years ago.  We depend on the sea.  We depend on open sea lanes.  We’re 90% of what we do commercially in this country flows in and out of our country by the sea.  So we’ve been a maritime nation.  We’re gonna be a maritime nation for the rest of our existence in terms of dependence on the sea.  So we need to have a pretty good understanding I think of Sea Power and Sea Power’s development in the 21st Century, and I think the landscape’s changing.  So it is important for me to get to places other than the Navy towns, which are also wonderfully supportive, but places throughout the country which support us and those that I can help understand, improve the level of both understanding and education about (what) their Navy is up (to).


            MR. FOERSTER:  You know for those of us who are not in the business of the Navy and in the business of the military or some of us any more, but as we think about America’s defense interest in national security as interest, not only post the Cold War but post 911, the Navy has, it seems to me, as someone sitting out here in the bleachers, has receded from visibility in the sense that I mean obviously we’re focused on the war in Iraq and that’s the Army, it’s also the Marines, the Air Force, my sole service is less in the spotlight.  Yet, we use to think of the importance of forward projection for the Navy during the Cold War.  This is an entirely different world for you.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  It is.


            MR. FOERSTER:  Tell me a little bit about how you see it.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  It is. 911 certainly turned it upside down in many ways.  Yet at the beginning of that, both in Operation Enduring Freedom and in Operation Iraqi Freedom, the Navy and actually all the services, we’re very prominent in the beginning of those conflicts, but I don’t take too much of an issue that the focus with your statement cause the focus clearly has been on the ground forces, the Marines and the soldiers.


            MR. FOERSTER:  And I didn’t want to denigrate the fact that when we were going into Baghdad...


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Sure.


            MR. FOERSTER:  ...as well as in the no-fly zones and all those other kinds of operations, there was this wonderful thing called the aircraft carrier,...


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Sure.


            MR. FOERSTER:  ...the floating air patch,...


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Right.


            MR. FOERSTER:  ...that for all of us who like to fly our planes, that was important.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Right.


            MR. FOERSTER:  But since then,...


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Certainly.


            MR. FOERSTER:  ...I mean it has been a ground focus.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  That’s right.


            MR. FOERSTER:  And yet you are obviously clearly vital to this mission.  Tell us a little bit about how you planned this.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Well, even our Navy today, which is about 282 ships, about almost 40% of those ships are deployed around the world.  We are a war fighting, seagoing service, a forward deployed in rotational, and it’s not just in and around the Persian Gulf.  We’re deployed in the Western Pacific.  We’re deployed in the Caribbean.  We’re deployed in the European Theater.  But clearly there’s been a focus and we remain deployed in the Persian Gulf sustaining operations there.  But in addition to that, our missions are changing. I mean we’ve got today almost 4,000 Sailors on the ground in Iraq and in that Central Command AOR [Area of Responsibility]. We’ve got almost 10,000 Sailors on the ground.


            MR. FOERSTER:  And what are those Sailors doing, those listing AOR as your area of responsibility?


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Area of responsibility.  That they are providing – a vast number of them are involved in security.  A vast number of them – a large number of them are involved in looking at ways to handle this IED threat that we have, these improvised explosive devices which are the devices that are killing our people.  We’ve got our Seabees, our combat engineers for our Marines, and they’ve been performing magnificently, particularly in Western Iraq.  We’ve got doctors, nurses, and corpsmen, out with our Marines who are literally performing miracles on the battlefield.  We’ve got forces down at the heart of Africa near Somalia.  There’s a joint task force there that’s commanded by a Navy admiral.  We got [others] in Guantanamo Bay.  We command the detainee mission there.  There’s a Navy two-star there with almost 1,000 Sailors participating in that mission.  Then we’ve got forces deployed routinely in the Western Pacific.  I am using the USNS Mercy, one of our two hospital ships out to Indonesia right now.


            MR. FOERSTER:  That was the one that was involved in the tsunami relief.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  That was involved in the tsunami relief a year ago January, but we’re going back to vaccinate our experience there so that we can continue to show that we can be a force for good and really change hearts and minds, which we did out there with the Marine Corps and relief efforts from many nations.


            MR. FOERSTER:  You talk about, when you use the number 282 ships and I think at the World Affairs Council luncheon, I think you’re going to 313,...


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  313.


            MR. FOERSTER:  ...yeah, 313 ships, but some of us who, when we were wearing a uniform people were talking about 600 ships.  I know you’ve got some other concepts that I want to get back to, but just in terms of...  I mean you got a smaller Navy.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Right.


            MR. FOERSTER:  But percentage wise, in terms of your operations standpoint, it doesn’t sound to me like you’re any less engaged and less forward deployed, less deployed than you would have been in the Cold War percentage wise.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Well, I think when we talk about the size of the Navy you hit on a key point.  We are smaller, but we are much more capable.  One of the examples that I like to use is that it wasn’t too long ago when they were flying airplanes; it took a lot of sorties to hit a single target.  Now a single airplane can hit lots of targets and much more precisely.  It doesn’t take as many.  It doesn’t take as much support.  It doesn’t take as much ammo.  It doesn’t take anything along the lines of what it used to.  The same is true of ships [that are] much more capable, and we’re designing them so that they are adaptable and that we have the kind of speed that we need in order to get places.  Yet, we do have about the same percentage or almost the same percentage of the force deployed and more widely dispersed, and the way we operate now is in more dispersed units than we have in the past and [we’re] able to because of our electronic connectivity, because of satellite communications.  We can be in a network and be dispersed and operate in more places.  Then if we have to come together, we can come together fairly rapidly.  So the technologies have helped us a lot, which means the Navy of the Reagan area that he was moving towards 600 ships, we don’t need that many.  What I’ve recently done is stop getting smaller.  We were 281.  We need to turn that around and build more ships to get us about 300, and over the next few years we’ll head in that direction.  We need lots of support in making that happen because the Navy isn’t much without ships.


            MR. FOERSTER:  That’s right.  I can imagine.  The Air Force isn’t much without airplanes either.  You alluded to something a minute ago about the sea lanes and you earlier talked at your luncheon speech with the Council about – I mean threats even due to the piracy,...


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Right.


            MR. FOERSTER:  It reminded me of the Barbary pirates...


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Right.


            MR. FOERSTER:  ...and that was a long ago,...


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Right.


            MR. FOERSTER:  ...even before my time.  But we had a number of speakers just on this program over the course of the last few months who had talked about the importance and vulnerability of sea lanes, shipments of energy, dependency on oil, and all of those kinds of things.  It seems to me that the presence mission, just being there, is engaging port calls, connections with others navies, that this must be a huge part of what you do.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Well, it’s a great part of how I grew up.  I’ve been around the world and operated in places that are all over the globe, and the interaction that is generated by virtue of a presence forward is very, very powerful in countries wherever we are.  It really is a competitive advantage for our country from a security standpoint to have a Navy that is forward, can continue to rotate, provide that presence, and really as much as anything, to be able to deter a problem, not just be able to respond to a problem.  But that deterrence piece and having a relationship with countries and allies, both enduring allies and emerging, potential emerging allies, so that we can establish a relationship through that kind of engagement, and do it in a more disperse way than we’ve done it in the past.  So being able to do that with our Navy is a very, very powerful part of what it delivers for the people of the United States of America.


            MR. FOERSTER:  You’re listening to 1410 KQV convening in the Pittsburgh Global Press Conference, brought to you by the World Affairs Council of Pittsburgh.  Our guest this week in the studio is Admiral Mike Mullen, the Chief of Naval Operations, America’s senior naval officer and member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and we’re talking about the challenges facing the United States Navy which he’s in charge of organizing training and equipping, and making available to our war fighting commanders.  Admiral Mullen, you alluded to this as well earlier, but a huge question.  To the extent to which technology has changed the character of the forces that you have, I mean we’re now talking about ground soldiers, for example, who are carrying around tons of technology on their back and trying to figure out where they can plug themselves in, batteries and those kinds of things, it’s a different kind of a problem.  With the Air Force is, heaven forbid for many people, moving away from having pilots in the airplanes,...


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Right.


            MR. FOERSTER:  ...what are the kinds of changes that are kind of revolutionary like that are facing you and your force structure?


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Well, Secretary Rumsfeld, when he came in, pushed this issue of transformation very hard, and I think rightfully so.  It was time for all of us to change much more rapidly, and because of our size that becomes very difficult.  You mentioned the unmanned piece.  The Navy is moving forward in unmanned vehicles, whether they’re under the sea, on the sea or whether they fly in lots of ways.  One of the things it does is it keeps people, it keeps human beings out of harm’s way when you don’t need to put them in there.  So we’re invested heavily in that.  We’re invested in technologies which will reduce the workload for our Sailors on ships so that a crew of a destroyer or a submarine...  But a destroyer which used to have some 350 Sailors on it, the new destroyer that we’re gonna have out here shortly will have half that crew.  That requires a lot of automation.  It requires a lot of technical support that doesn’t exist from our current ships and it leverages the kinds of technical investments that we need to make for the Navy of the future.  The same is true on even our new aircraft carrier where we’ll dramatically reduce the size of a ship’s company, the number of Sailors who man a ship as the new carrier comes on line, so that kind of capability, in addition to weapons’ technology, investing in the kinds of weapons...


            MR. FOERSTER:  So the obvious example is cruise missiles.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Cruise is one, range is another, precision is another, the ability to respond to multiple targets, those kinds of things, and to do it in a much more rapid fashion, to have good information at the point when you need it.  It’s all kinds of warfare.  It’s not just what is classical in the air warfare, how quick can I get to a target once I detect it.  That’s gonna happen whether it’s in submarine warfare or anti-submarine warfare, warfare on the sea or warfare in the air, and also warfare ashore, when we got the support from the joint perspective, the troops are ashore, as we are doing right now in Iraq and Afghanistan.


            MR. FOERSTER:  It seems to me as you describe that whole complex that the role of the aircraft carrier and the carrier battle group is a much more important part of the Navy.  I remember a long time ago that people were worried about oh, the concentration of ships that are on an aircraft carrier that it’s a great big juicy vulnerable target...


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Right.


            MR. FOERSTER:  ...or a nuclear weapon and so on,...


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Sure.


            MR. FOERSTER:  ...that was the Cold War.  We may yet find ourselves having to deal with somebody else’s – some adversary’s nuclear capabilities, but for now do you see the carrier becoming a more important asset that you can bring closer to shore?


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  I think, yeah, absolutely.  The intent is to be able to do that.  Although I have to be mindful that the enemy develops technologies as well, and I’ve got to be able to counter that. And the aircraft carrier is an important centerpiece for us, but it’s not the only centerpiece.  I’ve got big, amphibious ships that also work in groups of other kinds of ships, cruisers, destroyers and submarines.  I’m developing a new ship called the Littoral Combat Ship, which is a smaller, faster ship that will allow me to move in towards what we call the littoral, closer ashore, extending my way really beyond that into what I call green and brown water, where I’m operating much closer to shore, not with something like an aircraft carrier, but also with the entire fleet, and in this dispersed fashion and connective fashion be able to adapt myself to many missions.  This is also a Navy, as I said, that’s about 281, 282 ships right now, going over 300.  I talk about a concept with many other nations called the 1,000 ship navy, and they’re anxious to participate with us because of the challenges. You talk about piracy, and yes we have it.  We actually had a pretty significant rise in the number of piracy incidents off the coast of Somalia for instance, but it’s piracy, drugs, weapons, weapons of mass destruction, human trafficking, immigration.  These are all challenges that exist in many places in the world, and those navies in the maritime area, ports and harbors and their sea lanes right outside their countries.  They’re very anxious to be able to participate to create with many partners, to create a coalition of freedom loving nations that will secure that area in a way so that they can live the way that they want to live.


            MR. FOERSTER:  So this is – I mean I want to explore this a little bit more with you because this strikes me as – as really a revolutionary.  I mean as you describe it, it seems well, of course, this is the logical thing to do.  But it strikes me as revolutionary in the way we have thought about coalition warfare, a peacetime coalition operation.  I mean NATO forces have been able...


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Sure.


            MR. FOERSTER:  ...to do that for years and years and years, but this is a much more influx world and you’re talking about doing this with Indonesia and the Philippines or India or whoever it might be around the world in Latin America, engaging with them.  Tell me a little bit more about what does a 1,000 ship navy concept - would look like.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Not very long ago I was down in Argentina.  I spent some time at a conference with the heads of 14 other navies in South America for about four days.  The principal discussion was this concept of a 1,000 ship navy and how each one of those navies could participate and meet their needs and also the international needs.  They have the same challenges.  They also have commercial lanes that they’re interested in making sure are safe and secure.  In many ways this is about a standard of living, preserving a standard of living, raising a standard of living depending on where you are.  So there’s great power in this.  But I’ve also gotten a tremendously powerful reaction in the Western Pacific, the areas you talk about, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore.  Some of them are traditional allies.  Some of them are emerging nations which are emerging, which we want to have good relationships with.  The Navy can bring a lot of that positive potential to bear in things that we mutually care about.  We for years operated lots of ships, our Navy, the U.S. Navy in the Mediterranean.  There is an operation called Active Endeavor over there for the last three years of about 8 to 10 ships from various countries working together in a coalition, as a task force, which is looking at a lot of these kinds of challenges at sea.  We used to be all 10 of those ships.  Now the U.S. Navy just has to put one in and you leverage that one investment, the investment of one ship in that capability, and you get 10 ships worth of capability and ships come and go freely in and out of that.  It’s a very powerful construct.


            MR. FOERSTER:  But very ad hoc.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Well, it’s become more than...  It’s not really ad hoc in the Mediterranean any more...


            MR. FOERSTER:  Right.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  ...because it’s a pretty focused operation.  But it allows ships with small navies and big navies to participate, and they’re very, very positive in their support of this concept.


            MR. FOERSTER:  But operationally I was thinking more of ad hoc in Southeast Asia, for example, but would one kind of borrow some of the concepts of collaboration that have been developed in NATO navies over the first 50 years?


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Well, as I have originally laid this concept out last fall, I find out there’s already a fairly active group in the Western Pacific.  It’s called WPNS, the Western Pacific Naval Symposium, and that they work at sea.  There’s actually a group in South America.  There’s an organization in South America.  Obviously, we talked about the one in the Mediterranean.  I actually, before our last symposium, was really heartened by the fact that there were chiefs of navies from 28 African countries that got together for their own symposium, all of which heads in this direction about the need to understand this maritime domain better and support each other so that it can become more secure.


            MR. FOERSTER:  I know one of the subjects you talked about at lunch and it wouldn’t ordinarily come to mind in this context, but you were pretty definitive about the need to engage with China in the Pacific.  Could you imagine China being a partner in this kind of an endeavor?


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Well, it’s very difficult for me to figure out right now.


            MR. FOERSTER:  And a personal opinion.  Now is it?


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  No.  No, I understand.  It’s very difficult for me to figure out right now where China’s going I think, and Admiral Fallon, who is the Combatant Commander in the Pacific, just completed a trip from China.  Basically, he is trying to increase the number of military to military engagements.  So in that regard I certainly can imagine that and would like to see that.  That said there, China has increased their military, the investment in their defense capability dramatically.  They’re investing in good technologies.  So there is some question about what their intent is and that’s something that we’re just gonna have to try to understand better over time.  But certainly in a positive way, that kind of participation would be very well received.  As an example, I mean the Russians are now in the Mediterranean looking to participate in this operation called Active Endeavor, and I think that’s a very positive step.  So anything is possible.


            MR. FOERSTER:  The military to military engagement was, I think, one of the most defective concepts that anyone ever devised in terms of dealing with both Cold War relationships as well as the post Cold War relationships...


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Sure.


            MR. FOERSTER:  ...and making those productive in constructor.  But I also remember that about a decade ago, it was really difficult to get the Chinese in mil to mil.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Sure.


            MR. FOERSTER:  Are you optimistic that this would be some substantive connections?


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  I haven’t really spent enough time personally to see whether it’s gonna work navy to navy right.  I just don’t know.  I know this is a priority for Admiral Fallon and I really have to take this lead out in that theater to see where this might go.  You bring up mil to mil.  Mil to mil has gotta happen with people.  I would like to take just a second to say, we’ve got 350,000+ Sailors in uniform today around the world.  They’re the best Sailors I’ve ever been with, and as you indicated I’ve been around a long time.  America continues to provide young people, and it’s not just the Navy.  It’s all the services.  They wear the uniform with great pride and deliver for the American people.


            MR. FOERSTER:  It’s very difficult circumstances.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  And some incredibly challenging circumstances.  They do it better than I have ever seen them do it, and I’m very proud to call them shipmates and still be participating with them in this noble cause called service to your country.


            MR. FOERSTER:  Well, we only have a couple of minutes left.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Sure.


            MR. FOERSTER:  But I was gonna take you to personnel and manpower issues.  I mean two questions really.  It sounds to me like the mission that you’ve described is one in which, for a lack of a better phrase, I’m gonna call it political sophistication, sensitivity to other cultures, and understanding that there’s a political context to a ship being there in a port or engaging with some others.  So to what extent are you trying to make sure that the Navy personnel are up to that task, even better than they are now?  Secondly, I would imagine that with all the demands of technology that you may be all right with the numbers of people you have to recruit from, but you may or may not be getting the skill base that you need.  How is that looking to you?


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Well, right now our retention numbers in the Navy, which is tied to those, is specific to those who will stay in and make it a career are off the charts.  Morale is exceptionally high.  Our recruiting numbers are very good.  Some challenges on the reserve side, so it’s not rosy in every category, but our recruiting numbers are very, very high, particularly on the active side.  I just don’t see a big problem with that right now.  I don’t take it for granted cause it’s hard work.  I met a number of the recruiters here locally today in Pittsburgh, and they’re working very, very hard to bring in the best people we can.  I am concerned long-term about the kind of people that we need to make sure we bring in to handle the technology that is probably gonna be so dominant in our future.  So I am evolving a strategy for our people which really focuses on the right skills, the right mix, to include not just technology.  We’re gonna have to take a dramatic step up in terms of cultural awareness, language skills, understanding regions, really emerging people as regional experts throughout the world in the world that I describe, the challenges, the uncertain difficult world that we’re all living in.


            MR. FOERSTER:  The Navy has always had a character of its own.  You know what I mean by that.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  I do, indeed.


            MR. FOERSTER:  But we also live in a joint world.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  I do.



            MR. FOERSTER:  And you are very much a part of that joint world.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  (Inaudible).  Yeah.


            MR. FOERSTER:  As a closing thought, is the Navy fully within the joint world culturally?


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  The way the military is engaged today is much more joint than it was 10 years ago, and 10 years from now it will be that much more joint.  I guess the example that I would use to wrap this up is I just sent 6 of my best O-5s, commanders, been in the Navy 15, 16 years, the best of the best, to command provincial reconstruction teams in Afghanistan for the next year.  Believe me, those Sailors who grew up driving ships and flying airplanes had no expectation that they would be participating a few years ago in this kind of endeavor.  They got great training, great training support from the army, and they were excited.  I spent some time with them just before they went in.  They were so excited about where they were going and the difference that they could make, and really be a force for good which is what we all want to do.  So that’s pretty representative of the joint and coalition mindset that the Navy has right now and we continue to evolve.


            MR. FOERSTER:  Admiral Mike Mullen, it’s been a pleasure to have you, to help host you along with the Navy League Pittsburgh Chapter here in Pittsburgh.  I know you’re gonna have to run back to Washington tonight because you have a function there and then return for the commencement tomorrow, a Saturday, as we have this conversation at Grove City tomorrow.  That really is above and beyond, but you and your staff have been wonderful to work with, and it’s a great pleasure to have this conversation with you.  I wish you all the best, and we look forward to having you back here some time soon.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Thanks Sky.  It has been a great day here in Pittsburgh, and I look forward to coming back tomorrow and then after that as well.


            MR. FOERSTER:  You’re welcome anytime.  Thanks very much.


            ADMIRAL MULLEN:  Thanks.


            MR. FOERSTER:  You’ve been listening to 1410 KQV and the Pittsburgh Global Press Conference, brought to you in cooperation with the World Affairs Council of Pittsburgh, a non-profit, non-partisan organization, bringing educational programs in world affairs to Pittsburgh for 75 years.  Our guest today in the studio has been Admiral Mike Mullen, Chief of Naval Operations, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and America’s senior naval officer.  We’ve been talking about the challenges facing the United States Navy in this post 911 21st Century muddled world in which we live.  I’m Sky Foerster, your host for this week’s program.  If you’re interested in learning more about the World Affairs Council, call at (412) 281-7970 or visit our website at www.worldaffairspittsburgh.org.  Thanks to KQV and Greg Damjanovich at master control.  Tune in next week for another edition of Pittsburgh Global Press Conference every Friday evening at 7:30, Saturday evening at 8:30, Sunday morning at 10:30, and on the web at worldaffairspittsburgh.org.  Until then, good day everyone.

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