Army Researchers Developing High-Performance, Lightweight Helmet


Army researchers in Massachusetts are developing technology that may soon yield a lightweight combat helmet that provides more protection than anything ever fielded.

Troops make decision about placement of equipment
Army Capt. Beverly Nordin and Command Sgt. Major James LaFratta, the 173rd Airborne Brigade Support Battalion’s operations officer and command sergeant major, respectively, make decisions about the employment of heavy machine guns as their paratroopers conduct a base defense live-fire exercise in Slovenia. Army researchers are currently working on a helmet prototype that will provide equal protection as earlier helmets, but at less weight. Army photo by Lt. Col. John Hall
Troops make decision about placement of equipment
Decision Making
Army Capt. Beverly Nordin and Command Sgt. Major James LaFratta, the 173rd Airborne Brigade Support Battalion’s operations officer and command sergeant major, respectively, make decisions about the employment of heavy machine guns as their paratroopers conduct a base defense live-fire exercise in Slovenia. Army researchers are currently working on a helmet prototype that will provide equal protection as earlier helmets, but at less weight. Army photo by Lt. Col. John Hall

Representatives of the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, had an array of combat helmets on display at the Pentagon, May 24-25, as part of a "Close-Combat Lethality Tech Day."

Included among that protective gear was the Personnel Armor System for Ground Troops, or PASGT helmet, first fielded in 1981; the Advanced Combat Helmet, or ACH, first fielded in 2003; and the Lightweight Advanced Combat Helmet, or LW-ACH, which first appeared in 2013.

New Materials

All three of those helmets make use of para-aramid fibers to protect soldiers, and each successive helmet weighed less than its predecessor. The LW-ACH for instance, is more than a half-pound lighter than the PASGT helmet for a size large.

Newer helmets on display made use of a different material: ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, or UHMWPE.

The Advanced Combat Helmet Generation II, for example, weighs 22 percent less than the ACH and is designed to protect soldiers from fragmentation as well as from rounds up to 9 mm.

The Enhanced Combat Helmet and the most-recently fielded Integrated Head Protection System, or IHPS, with ballistic applique provide protection against rifle fire, as well. That increased protection, however, comes at a cost in terms of weight.

The helmet display made clear the challenge posed to those responsible for designing gear that keeps solders safe.

Minimizing Helmet Weight

"There's kind of a competition between increased threat and weight," said Richard Green, the director of the Soldier Protection and Survivability Directorate at NSRDEC. "We want to protect against increased threat, while minimizing the weight. That's our goal."

The centerpiece of the NSRDEC helmet display, the NSRDEC prototype helmet, met the protection versus weight challenge head on.

Weighing in at just 2.5 pounds for the shell, and an estimated 3.5 pounds final weight, the NSRDEC prototype provides the same protection as the currently-fielded IHPS.

But the NSRDEC prototype doesn't require the modular IHPS ballistic applique that attaches over the base helmet. With that applique in place, the IHPS system weighs over five pounds. The NSRDEC prototype weighs less than half that and provides the same protection. It protects soldiers against fragmentation, against 9 mm weapons fire, and against what Green called a "prevalent rifle threat."

Representatives of the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, out of Natick, Massachusetts, had an array of combat helmets on display at the Pentagon, May 24 and 25, 2018, as part of a "Close Combat Lethality Tech Day." This helmet, a NSRDEC prototype, provides equal protection to earlier helmets but at less weight.
Representatives of the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, displayed an array of combat helmets at the Pentagon, May 24-25, 2018. This helmet, a NSRDEC prototype, provides equal protection to earlier helmets, but at less weight. Army photo by C. Todd Lopez
Representatives of the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, out of Natick, Massachusetts, had an array of combat helmets on display at the Pentagon, May 24 and 25, 2018, as part of a "Close Combat Lethality Tech Day." This helmet, a NSRDEC prototype, provides equal protection to earlier helmets but at less weight.
Lightweight helmet prototypes shown at Pentagon
Representatives of the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, displayed an array of combat helmets at the Pentagon, May 24-25, 2018. This helmet, a NSRDEC prototype, provides equal protection to earlier helmets, but at less weight. Army photo by C. Todd Lopez

The NSRDEC prototype helmet is made of the same class of material as the IHPS, the ECH and the ACH GEN II: UHMWPE. But what researchers at NSRDEC have done is developed new ways to process UHMWPE so that it will be stronger than it has been in the past.

"It's stronger, so you need less of it," Green said.

Improved Performance

The new processing methods NSRDEC researchers have developed for UHMWPE has improved the ballistic performance for that material within a helmet. That means soldiers may one day see a finished helmet that weighs the same as the ECH, but provides more protection.

"The processing of that material has enabled us to optimize its performance," said Kenneth Ryan, the Warfighter Protection branch chief at NSRDEC. "Decreasing the load helps optimize soldier performance, and that helps them to be more lethal."

The NSRDEC doesn't manufacture helmets for the Army. Instead, it is the defense industry that ultimately provides that function, Ryan said. But when the time comes, it'll be NSRDEC-conducted research that industry will use to make the next generation of helmets that will help keep soldiers safe on the battlefield.

Ryan said he expects it will be about 12 months before these advanced technology developments that yielded the current incarnation of the NSRDEC prototype helmet can move forward to a point where the Army may request industry to develop mass-produced helmets for fielding to soldiers.