An official website of the United States Government 
Here's how you know

Official websites use .gov

.gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS

A lock ( lock ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Army Targets COVID-19 Vaccine by End of Year

You have accessed part of a historical collection on Some of the information contained within may be outdated and links may not function. Please contact the DOD Webmaster with any questions.

The global race to field a lifesaving COVID-19 vaccine may be nearing its last lap, as the Army aims for a vaccine by the end of this year, the force's top medical research officer said.

If all goes as planned, human testing will begin in late summer, Army Brig. Gen. Michael Talley, commander of the Army Medical Research and Development Command, told reporters yesterday. He added that he anticipates widespread distribution of a vaccine next year.

A gloved hand positions a rack of test specimens under a microscope.
Microscope Work
Researchers with the Emerging Infectious Disease branch at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research conduct studies to find a solution for the coronavirus. The Emerging Infectious Diseases branch, established in 2018, is tasked with surveying, anticipating and countering the mounting threat of emerging infectious diseases of key importance to U.S. forces at home and abroad.
Photo By: Army Sgt. Michael Walters
VIRIN: 200603-A-ZZ999-2222

To do this, Army researchers are following the science, he said.

However, when you follow the science, that lets science take charge of the timeline, said Col. Wendy Sammons-Jackson, director of the Military Infectious Disease Research Program at MRDC.

"It's reasonable to expect some form of a vaccine available by the end of the year," Sammons-Jackson said. "As long as we're able to continue to progress, learn, understand and adapt, I think we have all of the resources available and pointed in the same direction that can make [our timeline] possible."

Although advances have been made, and goals are set, "we're in the learning phase with every aspect of this, whether it’s the development of treatments or vaccines — it's a constant learning process," said Dr. Nelson Michael, director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.

We're learning the science of [COVID-19] faster than we have learned the science of any other virus before."
Dr. Nelson Michael, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

That's why scientists around the globe, including the Army, are simply doing their best to keep up with the complex virus, he added.

"We're learning the science of [COVID-19] faster than we have learned the science of any other virus before," Michael said. "We're going from a concept, all the way to Phase 3 clinical trials and potentially licensure in an unprecedented timeline — but in this case, it's very much possible."

In January, after the virus' genetic makeup was published, the more than 700 Army scientists, researchers and staff at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick, Maryland, began working day and night to develop medical countermeasures against COVID-19.


The Walter Reed team also started racing against the clock to develop a vaccine candidate to beat the novel coronavirus. "We are moving at top speed at both labs and yielding promising results," Talley said regarding USAMRIID and WRAIR. At Fort Detrick, they are safely replicating the virus to support countermeasure development. Meanwhile the team at WRAIR has designed a unique COVID-19 candidate, he said.

USAMRIID is also developing small- and large-animal models to support testing of vaccines, diagnostics and therapeutics developed by the Army and its collaborators.

"We have been vaccinating hundreds of mice with different versions of our vaccine, and we will be making a decision as to which one is the best to take forward for manufacturing next week," said Dr. Kayvon Modjarrad, director of the Emerging Infectious Diseases Branch at WRAIR, "then, ultimately, clinical trials by late summer."

"Based on the data obtained this summer, we'll know which vaccine candidates to move forward with for larger trials toward the end of the year," Michael said.

Prior to the COVID-19 response, Michael's previous global health contributions include the Military HIV Research Program, or MHRP. His team was instrumental in the globally effective HIV-1 vaccine.

"Our team is fully engaged in the governmental structure called Operation Warp Speed," Michael said.

: A woman in protective gear conducts a diagnostic test in a medical laboratory.
Diagnostic Testing
Army Spc. Taylor Wolik, a medical laboratory specialist with the 1st Area Medical Laboratory, performs a diagnostic assay at the Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases field laboratory site at Fort Detrick, Md. USAMRIID provides specialized training to the lab’s employees in conducting diagnostic assays to detect the presence of coronavirus and other biological agents in clinical or environmental samples.
Photo By: William F. Discher, Army
VIRIN: 200603-A-ZZ999-1111

Operation Warp Speed, an initiative first announced by President Donald Trump and with Army Materiel Command at the helm, brings together experts from across the government to determine a vaccine for COVID-19 and distribute more than 300 million doses across the United States.

"We cover [everything] from therapeutics, diagnostics and vaccines," Michael said. "But for our specific work in vaccines, we're heavily engaged across all agencies [where] the Army and Defense Department's capabilities and competencies with vaccine development can be brought to bear."

What this means is that they're not only testing potential vaccines invented during the intramural program, he said, but they have the capability to also do pre-clinical and stage-1 testing of potential vaccines outside of their laboratories.

In addition to WRAIR and USAMRIID, many unique subordinate commands are using their assets to support the overall government response to the virus, Talley said. "For example, in Natick, Massachusetts, at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, researchers are developing wearable technology to [recognize] key early symptoms of COVID-19."

To date, COVID-19 has killed more than 370,000 people worldwide, including more than 100,000 in the United States.

"U.S. Army researchers were critical during the SARS epidemic, the Zika virus, and the Ebola outbreak as they helped develop antivirals and vaccines," Secretary of the Army Ryan D. McCarthy said in April. "They've done it before, and they will do it again."

Related Stories