An official website of the United States Government 
Here's how you know

Official websites use .gov

.gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS

A lock ( lock ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Esper Describes Steps to Maintaining Future Maritime Superiority

You have accessed part of a historical collection on Some of the information contained within may be outdated and links may not function. Please contact the DOD Webmaster with any questions.

In this era of great power competition, the Defense Department has prioritized China, then Russia as its top strategic competitors, the defense secretary said.

"These revisionist powers are using predatory economics, political subversion and military force in an attempt to shift the balance of power in their favor — and often at the expense of others," Dr. Mark T. Esper said today at the RAND Corp. in Santa Monica, California.


The secretary mentioned steps the department is taking to counter these peer competitors, per the National Defense Strategy, which contains the three key pillars: readiness and modernization, strengthening relations with allies and partners, and reform. He touched on each of these pillars and then focused on China and the maritime domain.

The Indo-Pacific region is the priority theater, Esper said. In the face of destabilizing activities from China's People's Liberation Army, particularly in the maritime domain, the United States must be ready to deter conflict and, if necessary, fight and win at sea.

Two aircraft fly in close proximity.
Russian Aircraft
Two Russian Su-35 aircraft unsafely intercept a P-8A Poseidon patrol aircraft assigned to the U.S. 6th Fleet over the Mediterranean Sea, May 26, 2020. The intercept was determined to be unsafe and unprofessional due to Russian pilots taking close station on each wing of the P-8A simultaneously; this restricted the P-8A’s ability to safely maneuver and lasted 64 minutes.
Photo By: Navy
VIRIN: 200526-N-N0901-011C

The Chinese Communist Party intends to complete the modernization of its armed forces by 2035. Beijing is also investing in long-range, autonomous and unmanned submarines, which it believes can be a cost-effective counter to American naval power.

"I want to make clear that China cannot match the United States when it comes to naval power. Even if we stopped building new ships, it would take the PRC [People's Republic of China] years to close the gap when it comes to our capability on the high seas," Esper said. 

A man, standing at a microphone, speaks.
Esper Speech
Defense Secretary Dr. Mark T. Esper discusses National Defense Strategy implementation, particularly in regard to threats from China, at the RAND Corp. in Santa Monica, Calif., Sept. 16, 2020.
Photo By: Lisa Ferdinando, DOD
VIRIN: 200916-D-BN624-001

"Nonetheless, we must stay ahead. We must retain our overmatch. And, we will keep building modern ships to ensure we remain the world's greatest Navy," he said.

To compete in a 21st century, high-end fight, America will need a future fleet that optimizes the following operational attributes:

  • Distributed lethality and awareness;
  • Survivability in a high intensity conflict;
  • Adaptability for a complex world;
  • Ability to project power to control the seas and demonstrate presence; and
  • Capability to deliver precision effects at very long ranges.

This future naval force will be more balanced in its ability to deliver lethal effects from the air, from the sea and from under the sea. This fleet will be made up of more and smaller surface combatants; optionally manned, unmanned and autonomous surface and subsurface vehicles; unmanned carrier-based aircraft of all types; a larger and more capable submarine force; and a modern strategic deterrent, Esper said.

A person with a gun looks out of a helicopter over the ocean.
Aerial Security
Marine Cpl. Richard Simons IV, a reconnaissance Marine with the Maritime Raid Force, 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit, provides aerial security during a visit, board, search and seizure mission on a UH-1Y Venom helicopter with Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 262 (reinforced), 31st MEU, after taking off from amphibious assault ship USS America in the South China Sea, Sept. 5, 2020.
Photo By: Marine Corps Cpl. Brandon Salas
VIRIN: 200905-M-PZ755-1013

This fleet must be affordable and must be manned by a highly skilled and ready workforce and supported by a robust shipyard and industrial base, he added.

Esper said that earlier this year, he asked the deputy secretary of defense to lead a Future Naval Force Study tasked with assessing a wider and more ambitious range of future fleet options. 

The Navy, Marine Corps, Joint Staff, Office of the Secretary of Defense and outside advisors conducted a comprehensive, cost and threat-informed review and analysis, he said.

Seamen train in damage control.
USS America
Navy Command Master Chief Randy Bell, assigned to the forward-deployed amphibious assault ship USS America, trains sailors during a damage control drill in the South China Sea, Sept. 8, 2020.
Photo By: Navy Seaman Matthew Cavenaile
VIRIN: 200908-N-IO312-1094

First, they examined the current fleet. Second, they explored future force options needed to retain dominance in 2045 given China's likely modernization plans. And,  third, they war-gamed these options, assessing the strengths and weaknesses of each combination of ships against different future mission sets, Esper said.

This week, Esper said he met with those involved in this study to discuss their findings.

"The results are a game-changer that reflect a good deal of serious work and effort based on facts and data. This study will serve as our guidepost as we decide on, program and build our future fleet and conduct follow-on assessments in select areas," he said. 

Two sailors run away from a helicopter that is lifting off from the deck of a ship.
Replenishment Run
Navy Seaman Apprentice William Caliman and Petty Officer 3rd Class Hunter Boyce move away from an MH-60S Seahawk as it lifts cargo from the flight deck of the USS Theodore Roosevelt during a replenishment in the Pacific Ocean, July 1, 2020.
Photo By: Navy Seaman Erik Melgar
VIRIN: 200701-N-XX200-1193C

"In short, it will be a balanced force of over 355 ships — both manned and unmanned — and will be built in a relevant timeframe and budget-informed manner. And we will build this fleet in such a way that balances tomorrow's challenges with today's readiness needs and does not create a hollow Navy in the process," he said.

To achieve this outcome, the department will increase funding for shipbuilding and the readiness that sustains this force, he said.

As an example, earlier this year, the Navy granted a $795 million contract to purchase the first ship of a new class of guided missile frigates — with an option to purchase nine more totaling nearly $5.6 billion. This is the first new, major shipbuilding program the Navy has sought in more than a decade, Esper pointed out.

A man, seated, speaks.
RAND Discussion
Defense Secretary Dr. Mark T. Esper (left) discusses National Defense Strategy implementation, particularly in regard to threats from China, at the RAND Corp. in Santa Monica, Calif., Sept. 16, 2020.
Photo By: Lisa Ferdinando, DOD
VIRIN: 200916-D-BN624-003

Also, the Navy is making good progress on unmanned surface vessels and unmanned undersea vehicles, Esper mentioned. Earlier this month, for example, the autonomous, unmanned surface vessel Sea Hunter prototype completed operations with the destroyer USS Russell, demonstrating various aspects of manned and unmanned teaming. "These efforts are the next step in realizing our future fleet, one in which unmanned systems perform a variety of warfighting functions — from delivering lethal fires and laying mines to conducting resupply or surveilling the enemy. This will be a major shift in how we will conduct naval warfare in the years and decades to come."

Also, the Navy and Marine Corps will employ novel concepts such as distributed maritime operations and littoral operations in a contested environment, which will modernize the way we fight as they enable our future joint warfighting doctrine, Esper said.

Related Stories