An official website of the United States Government 
Here's how you know

Official websites use .gov

.gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS

A lock ( lock ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Pentagon Press Secretary Air Force Brig. Gen. Pat Ryder Holds a Press Briefing

BRIGADIER GENERAL PAT RYDER: Hey, good afternoon, everyone. We've got a few things to update you at the top here, and then I'll get right to your questions. Quite a bit to pass along, so thank you in advance for your patience.

So Defense Department support to the state of Hawaii and FEMA in the aftermath of Maui's wildfires continues. As of today, U.S. Army Pacific Command in its role as the theater Joint Force land component command is conducting six approved mission assignments for FEMA which include operation of a Defense Coordinating Element Office, which includes liaison officers; inter-island air and sea transportation for the movement of cargo, personnel, supplies and equipment; use of the U.S. Army's Schofield Barracks on Oahu to support facilities for building, life support and hygiene facilities for federal emergency responders; strategic transportation of personnel and/or cargo; standby for aerial fire suppression; and use of the U.S. Army Reserve Center Wailuku and support as a FEMA incident support base and federal staging area for FEMA. 

Combined Joint Task Force 5-0 under the command of Army National Guard Brigadier General Stephen Logan, the dual-status commander, is now at full operational capability and is actively synchronizing all DOD support to disaster relief operations. That support consists of a variety of ongoing activities and capabilities, to include the Hawaii National Guard's response teams, trained in a variety of hazardous material response, providing support to search-and-recovery operations. 

Additionally, Hawaii National Guard personnel continue to support local law enforcement by manning traffic control points and providing area security in Lahaina. Also, two Hawaii Army National Guard CH-47 Chinooks with aerial fire suppression buckets remain on standby to provide additional firefighting support to Maui as requested. Of note, these Army National Guard aircrews have already dropped more than 189,000 gallons of water in support of firefighting efforts. 

Other DOD support includes the U.S. Army's 402nd Army Field Support Brigade, which has field service representatives on Oahu for communications and logistics support, to CJTF 5-0, if needed. Additionally, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers are currently managing two operational FEMA mission assignments for debris removal and temporary power. The 249th Engineer Battalion Prime Power Team and their advanced contracting initiative contractors continue to support power generation requirements and assessments. This is a critical capability, as FEMA moved 32 generators to Maui earlier this week, with an additional 61 generators pre-staged at Oahu. Additionally, U.S. Army Reserve personnel are supporting by enabling use of U.S. Army Reserve Center Wailuku as a FEMA incident support base and a federal staging area.

In addition, the Air Force has established an Air Force emergency preparedness liaison officer on station in Oahu, while the Navy has two Navy emergency preparedness liaison officers on station, with one in Maui and one in Oahu. The Navy also has two MH-60R Seahawks and three CMV-22 Ospreys on standby to support incoming requests. U.S. Marine Corps aviation assets are also available to support, and include MV-22 Osprey and KC-130J Super Hercules aircraft for material and personnel transport, as well as an MQ-9 remotely-piloted aircraft for aerial survey. 

Additionally, the 3rd Marine Littoral Regiment has been made available to provide manpower, engineering and water purification support, as needed. 

I would be remiss if I didn't mention that our U.S. Coast Guard teammates and the Department of Homeland Security are also actively supporting this important effort. I'll of course, defer to them for further details, but they're maintaining the focus of their response on minimizing maritime environmental impacts, while also remaining ready to respond to any new reports of people in the water. A safety zone has been implemented by Coast Guard Maritime Safety and Security Team Honolulu and the Coast Guard National Strike Force encompassing waters extending 200 yards from shore in the Lahaina Harbor area. Altogether, nearly 700 DOD personnel, active, Reserve, Guard and civilians and 140 Coast Guardsmen are actively engaged in the coordinated response to the Western Maui wildfire.

Moving forward, the Department of Defense and CJTF 5-0 will continue to work closely with state officials, FEMA and other supporting agencies to support the people of Hawaii in response to this terrible disaster. And again, we're all watching the situation in Maui with heavy hearts, and our continued thoughts and prayers go out to those who have been impacted.

In other news today, the department released the 2023 Military Service Academy On-Site Installation Evaluation Report, which includes recommendations to foster healthier climates and enhance prevention efforts at military service academies. As a critical leadership tool across the department, on-site installation evaluation reports are designed to understand policies and capabilities to effectively prevent self-directed harm and prohibited abuse or harmful acts, to include sexual assault, harassment and suicide. Secretary Austin has made the prevention of sexual assault and harassment a top priority since the first days of his tenure, and he's continued to follow through on that commitment. As a result of this report, the Secretary is directing the department's most senior leaders to move quickly to implement transformational  actions at the academies, intended to reverse these alarming trends and prevent sexual assault, harassment, and other harmful behaviors.

The department continues a collaborative and research-informed approach to prevention and more information is available about the Department of Defense efforts to prevent harmful behaviors on our website at

Finally, the Department of Defense also released today its first Biodefense Posture Review. As many of you are aware, the department and the nation are at a pivotal moment in biological defense, as highlighted in both the National Defense Strategy and our National Biodefense Strategy.

As a result, this new posture review outlines specific reforms aimed to posture the department to fight and win in the face of complex future bio-threats. The Biodefense Posture Review assesses the biological threat landscape through 2035 and lays the foundation for a resilient total force to deter the use of bio-weapons, rapidly respond to natural outbreaks, and minimize the global risks presented by biological threats. 

For additional details, please see the full Biodefense Posture Review on 

And with that, I'll be happy to take your questions. We'll start with Associated Press, Lita Baldor.

Q: Thanks, Pat. Two things. One on Hawaii, did you understand that there are any requests or pending requests from the state that the department is still looking at or reviewing? Is there any unanswered requests yet?

And then I have a second question.

GEN. RYDER: Thanks Lita. I'm not aware of any unanswered requests. Obviously, it's a very iterative process, as FEMA identifies what they need from the Department of Defense to Joint Task Force 5-0. And so as we receive those, we will either work to provide support from within the Indo-Pacific Command area of responsibility or reach out elsewhere if those capabilities are not resident there in Hawaii.

Q: And then my second question is on Iran and the Gulf region. Have there been any changes to the U.S. posture in the Gulf region, either maritime or air? And have you seen a decline in maligned activity by Iranian boats and the Iranian Navy? Do you believe deterrence is working there or are you seeing a -- it start to surge again? Thank you.

GEN. RYDER: Yeah, thanks, Lita. So I'm -- don't have anything new to announce, in terms of force posture, since the last update we provided when the Amphibious Readiness Group arrived in theater.

In terms of statistics as it relates to maligned activity, you know, this is a trend that we will follow over time. We do believe that we are having a deterrent effect by working closely with our allies and our partners in the region but it's something we of course have to stay after, which is why we located some additional assets in that region. But again, this is something that we'll continue to monitor. 

Our hope would be that the trend would be downward, but ultimately, that's up to Iran. In the meantime, we're going to do everything that we can to ensure the safety and security in the region and the continued ability of commerce to transit the Strait of Hormuz unimpeded.

All right, let me go to -- in the room here. Jen?

Q: Pat, just to follow up on the deterrent effect, can you outline how many incidents between the American F-35s who've been deployed to Syria and the Russian Air Force have occurred? How close has it come?

GEN. RYDER: Thanks, Jen. I don't have any information. I'm not aware of any specific incidents but let me take that question, we'll come back to you.

Q: And separately, can you put into context why tomorrow's summit between the President and the South Korean and Japanese leaders is so historically significant from a military perspective?

GEN. RYDER: Sure. So really, this historic meeting really proves how important this relationship is not only to our country but to international security. We continue to see more and more alignment between our three nations, between the U.S., Japan, and the Republic of Korea, as recently as this June's trilateral meeting with the Secretary of Defense and his counterparts.

So what we expect to see tomorrow will be significant outcomes that will cement our trilateral cooperation going forward. The deliverables that you'll see coming out of that will take that relationship to a new level and we will continue to work together to deliver benefits for not only the peoples of our three countries but also those in the Indo-Pacific region.

And certainly, you know, I don't want to get ahead of the White House, in terms of what those specific outcomes will be, but I'm sure we'll have more to say afterward.

Q: Why is this significant and why is it happening right now? Is it a message to North Korea and China?

GEN. RYDER: I think what you've seen -- well, certainly it's a message to the world and to the region about how important these relationships are. I think it's a continuation of what you've seen happening in the Indo-Pacific region for a while now, which is to continue to strengthen those relationships as a way to deter potential aggression, but more importantly, to ensure stability and security in the broader region and internationally. Thank you.

I know Janne, I'm sure you're going to ask a question outside the Indo-Pacific AOR.

Q: Thank you. I (inaudible) follow up trilateral summits will be held annually. And the -- regarding the regular rotation of the ROK, U.S., and Japan joint military exercises, do you think this framework will be maintained permanently or what will happen if the government changes?

GEN. RYDER: Yeah, thanks. In terms of the frequency of a summit like this, you know, from the White House, I'd have to refer you to the White House for that. I would certainly imagine that you'll continue to see increased cooperation between our three nations.

And as it relates to exercises, are you asking about the ... 

Q: Yeah, joint (inaudible).

GEN. RYDER: I'm sorry?

Q: Joint military exercises.

GEN. RYDER: Yeah, joint -- right, exactly. We're going to continue to look at ways that we can work together to increase interoperability, but as I highlighted to Jen, also to ensure that we can continue to meet our alliance commitments and ensure peace, stability, and security in the broader region.

Q: ... this is permanently, even if it change its government, like Korean, you know, (inaudible) and President is -- changes or ... 

GEN. RYDER: Yeah, I think that the relationships between our three nations continue to get better and better and stronger and stronger. These are two of our staunchest allies. And so I think, you know, that will not change any time soon.

Q: And will ... 

GEN. RYDER: Now let me move on here to Matt cause he's looking really impatient.

Q: Yes thank you, Pat. On Private Travis King, have there been any new substantive communications from the DPRK, either to the U.S. or the United Nations Command? And does the U.S. have any knowledge on the state -- the status or wellbeing of Private King?

GEN. RYDER: Yeah, thanks. I don't have any updates to provide, in terms of any new communications. Certainly, our priority remains Private King's wellbeing and efforts to get him home, but I don't have any specific updates on that. Thank you very much.

Let me go to Tom.

Q: Thanks, Pat. Last night, the Pentagon sent out a note on a taken question regarding the cluster munitions testing and survey. I have two related questions on that, please. One is that -- you're not going to give it us, and I understand that -- will the information from those tests be provided to Ukrainian officials, since obviously they'll be using them, and they promised to map -- they had said they were going to map where they use clusters? 

Will that information be given to the Ukrainian officials for their use and consumption, since basically their civilians will be impacted by a (inaudible). 

And the second one, I am a little curious, maybe you can -- without straying into the security issues, what is it about the testing rates, the dud rate that has to be classified? Why is that classified? 

GEN. RYDER: Yes, sure. 

Q: What can be given to the adversaries? Thanks. 

GEN. RYDER: Yes, so I'll start with your second question first. Why is it classified? Because, I mean, you answered your own question. That's information -- yes, there you go -- so next question. 

No, so the -- that information, any type of sensitive, technical data that could provide a potential adversary with insight into the specifics of down to an Nth degree as far as the effectiveness of those weapons, the range of those weapons, I mean there's going to be an unclassified aspect to it that gives broad, general numbers, but it's not going to get into deep, technical data. 

Q: In other words, it's the effectiveness aspect of it that would -- is the classified element? 

GEN. RYDER: All the data combined in the aggregate makes the reports classified. In terms of whether or not we're going to provide those reports to the Ukrainians, I think again you're -- appreciate the question, but I think you're conflating two things, right? There's the research and testing aspect of any weapons system that we will do on our own weapons, right? 

Then there's -- that's not information that's necessarily relevant to an end user that's receiving the product, OK? They know that it works, they know -- well obviously what they'll need to know in terms of the classified aspects of range and things like that, but not necessarily research and development statistics. 

And on that topic, all indications are right now, based on the information that the Ukrainians are providing to us on using those weapons, that they're living up to their commitment, that they're using those weapons appropriately, and so there's no concerns from our perspective. 

Q: (inaudible). 

GEN. RYDER: What? Yes, go ahead  

Q: ...and I appreciate your patience with me. So I understand now the classifying because, you know, the effectiveness of -- you don't want the adversary, the enemy to know the effectiveness, but conversely, wouldn't you want your ally in this case, Ukraine, to know how effective they would be also?

GEN. RYDER: Again, it depends. If we're talking about operational use versus research and testing, it's two different things, right? Every single weapons system in the inventory probably has a classified aspect in terms of the research and development and the testing, as opposed to the operational execution of that capability, which is a separate set of data. 

Yes, so, OK. Let me go to Ryo here. 

Q: Thank you. The South Korean government said North Korea is preparing an ICBM test, probably in response to trilateral leaders meeting and the joint exercises between the U.S. and South Korea next week. So does the Pentagon agree to South Korea's assessment? 

GEN. RYDER: I'm sorry Ryo what was that last part agree to what? 

Q: Ah yes, does the Pentagon agree -- does the Pentagon share South Korea's assessment, agree to South Korea's assessment? 

GEN. RYDER: I -- and again, I apologize for my ignorance, and maybe I missed it, what is their assessment? 

Q: That North Korea -- the South Korean government said North Korea is preparing ICBM... 

GEN. RYDER: Oh, I see what you're saying, OK. Yes. So I'm not going to comment on any potential intelligence in terms of what we think North Korea may or may not be doing. Clearly there's a history there of provocative acts. We've been very clear that we're going to maintain robust communication with our Republic of Korea and Japanese allies as well as those other countries and partners and allies in the region to make sure that we can deter potential aggression. But more importantly, again, ensure stability and security in the region.

The exercises that we are doing, and it's very important to understand this, is that those are defensive in nature and they are meant to, again, enable our commitments, our alliance commitments and ensure that we can work together. 

We have -- the U.S. government has in many occasions highlighted the fact that we are willing to engage diplomatically with North Korea without any preconditions to which this point they have chosen not to do that. 

So hopefully that answers your question. 

Q: Yes. One follow-up. On the trilateral cooperation with Japan and South Korea, do you expect this trilateral corporation will forecast more on China entirely?

GEN. RYDER: Again, I -- I would say take a step back, right. And if you look at the broad efforts of the United States and our allies and partners across the Indo-Pacific region, it's really focused on ensuring that we can all work together in an international rules based order to ensure stability and security in the region. 

It's not directed at anyone particular nation. If there are nations that choose to try to use coercion and try to create instability or violate sovereign rights, we want to work together with nations to try to prevent that kind of activity. But certainly we would hope that all nations would act in a responsible professional manner to enable everyone to live in peace and prosperity throughout the region.

Let me go to Jim Garamone here.

Q: So what you're saying is you can't really just look at this trilaterally group alone. I mean there many other groupings throughout the region. And in order to really assess what the trilateral group does. We have to include it with all those other groupings. Am I wrong in that?

GEN. RYDER: No, I mean the United States is a Pacific nation. We obviously have a very long coastline along the pacific and we have many allies and partners in the region of -- with whom we're going to work toward common goals of a peaceful, stable Indo-Pacific region. Thank you.

Let me go to the front here. Howard Altman, War Zone.

Q: Hey, thanks, Pat. I've got a couple of very divergent questions. The first one is has Ukraine asked for and does the Pentagon have any planes to provide the M26 DPICM round, that's for the HIMARS to Ukraine?

The second set of questions I have pertains to the recent B2 flight from Iceland to Alaska. Did that traverse the North Pole and can you talk about the significance of that plane? Thanks.

GEN. RYDER: Yes, thanks Howard. Unfortunately I'm going to be incredibly disappointing in my responses. On DPICMs, I don't have anything new to announce. Certainly when and if we do, you know, we'll be sure to do that.

On the B2 flights, I'd refer you to Air Force Global Strike Commander or US Strategic Command to talk about the particulars of that flight. Sorry I don't have more info on that. 

Let me go to Idrees at Reuters.

Q: Hey, Pat. Belarus' president earlier today said that Belarus would use tactical nukes if they were threatened. Just going back a bit, have you seen Russia physically move tactical nuclear weapons into Belarus so far? Is that something you haven't seen?

GEN. RYDER: Yeah, thanks, Idrees. So as I'm sure you're -- you can appreciate, I'm not going to get into any type of intelligence. We have seen those press reports coming out of Russia saying that they were going to do this, but I -- you know, again, I'm not going to comment on that specifically.

I will tell you broadly speaking we have not seen anything that would cause us to change the posture of our own strategic forces, nor have we seen any indication that Russia has made a decision to employ nuclear weapons, as it relates to the conflict in Ukraine. 

All right, let me go to Lara at Politico.

Q: Hey, sorry, I was just trying to unmute myself. Thanks for doing this. I wanted to follow up with you just about -- excuse me, I'm coughing -- just about the trilateral meeting, and I wonder any -- I'm wondering if you can give us some more details about this hotline that was reported that's going to be set up between the three nations, the U.S., Japan, and Korea? How exactly is that intelligence sharing going to work? Can you -- anything you can -- you can tell us about the mechanisms of that hotline, as they're calling it, would be very helpful.

GEN. RYDER: Yeah, thanks, Lara. So, you know, again, I'm going to defer to the White House right now since this is their summit. And again, we may have more to say after that summit concludes, but I don't want to get out ahead of any trilateral discussions or specific outcomes. 

Q: OK, thank you.

GEN. RYDER: ... let me come back. Yes, ma'am?

Q: I have two questions. The first is there are reports a plea deal is being negotiated for the suspended mastermind of the September 11th attacks and his fellow defendants. What message do you have for the families who have been waiting for nearly 22 years for their trials? And is justice being served?

GEN. RYDER: Yeah, thank you. We are aware that a letter was recently sent by the Office of the Chief Prosecutor for Military Commissions to the families of the victims of the 9/11 attack. However, because this specific -- you know, specific cases are ongoing, you know, it would be really inappropriate for me to discuss it at this point. So any questions on that, I'd have to refer you to the Office of Military Commissions.

Q: if I may on Hawaii, I was curious -- you know, this happened early last week. What kind of action was taken, you know, that -- the U.S. Navy there, bases, military helicopters. Was there any action taken sooner for those on the ground? I know some of the response from people on the ground there is "where is the government?" and they felt forgotten. What is -- what ... 

GEN. RYDER: I can assure you, from a DOD perspective, I mean, no one has been forgotten and we have leaned into this heavily almost from the very beginning, to try to ensure that we're providing the state of Hawaii and FEMA the support that they need.

And so I think it's also important to understand that what you don't want to do in a disaster situation is put additional people and capabilities in a situation where you're not sure whether they're needed and all you're doing is creating an additional logistics burden, because when you send people forward, those people also have to have a place to sleep, a place to eat, a way to get to places.

So it -- it's -- you know, they're -- a lot of expertise and experience, in terms of crisis response and making sure that we're doing this in a coordinated way. And so the things that I highlighted at the beginning there, as this situation evolves, I'm sure there'll be additional requests, and we'll continue to lean very far forward to make sure that we're supporting the state of Hawaii and FEMA and other federal and state agencies as they respond to this, but by no means have any of us forgotten or will forget that this is a very tragic situation, and we want to help any way we can. Thank you very much.

I'm sorry, Janne, there's other folks with questions, so let me come back to you. Yes, ma'am?

Q: I wanted to follow up on the cluster munitions question. When you said "all indications are saying that the Ukrainians are living up to their commitments," is that coming from data that Ukrainians are reporting to you in real time or U.S. intelligence or some kind of combination of those two things ... 

GEN. RYDER: Yes. Next question.


Yeah, so, you know, joking aside, we have a variety of means to gather information, to include reports that the Ukrainians are sending to us as well, in accordance with the commitment that they've made. And again, we have no indication that they're using these in ways that would target civilian populations. 

And I guess again -- I probably don't even need to say this -- but why would they do that? It's their people. They're fighting for their country -- and so in addition to providing some of that information, recording where they've done this for future de-mining efforts, so to speak.

So we're confident that they're using them appropriately. Thank you.

Yes, sir?

Q: A follow-up on an earlier question and returning to the trilateral summit that's going to take place, I wanted to know if you could offer any more details on the reported increased missile defense cooperation exercises that the -- will likely take place?

GEN. RYDER: Yeah, again, I hate to sound like I'm beating a dead horse here but once the summit occurs and you know, the readouts come out from those discussions at the White House, we'll, I'm sure, have a lot more to talk about, but again, it's a White House summit and there'll be much more to follow in the days and hours ahead. Thank you.

Let me just take a couple more. I'll go back to the phone to Jared from Al-Monitor.

Q: Thank you, sir, thanks for doing this. I just wanted to check in -- there have been some scattered reports in Arabic language media coming out of Iraq saying that there's been, over the past week or so, a movement of U.S. coalition forces from the Al-Tanf garrison possibly to the Al-Qa'im area, which is an area in which U.S. forces used to be based. I think they withdrew out of there back in 2020, amid a bit of -- bit of a -- a broader drawdown. 

Just wondering if you can confirm any of this, if this is involved with sort of the deescalation -- reports of a deescalation with Iranian forces, what the purpose of this might be if -- if it's accurate?

GEN. RYDER: Yeah, thanks, Jared. So I'd refer you to CENTCOM for more details but I'm not tracking any significant shift in forces, as it pertains to the defeat ISIS mission in Syria. Again, that remains our focus there. 

I know that there had been some stray voltage out there, some inaccurate reporting coming out of that region earlier, suggesting that somehow U.S. forces were involved in border security between Iraq and Syria, which are false, that there is no border security, we don't provide border security. That's the writ of the Iraqi government. So hopefully that addresses your question.

OK, we've got time for one more. Janne, final question?

Q: Thank you very much.

GEN. RYDER: And then I'll go to Ben, sorry. Go ahead.

Q: Can you tell us about the more (inaudible), like UFS, between South Korea and U.S. -- have a joint (inaudible) what is the ... 

GEN. RYDER: Yeah, I don't have anything to announce on that right now. I'd encourage you to get with the USFK and they can get you more details as that -- as any exercise comes up, but appreciate your understanding there.

Let me go to Ben and then we'll close it out.

Q: Thank you. Has DOD provided -- on Hawaii, has DOD provided sort of a slate of things that are available to FEMA and the Governor, a list -- I -- I don't know, sort of like a menu of what could be on offer? I know the Marine Corps -- you've mentioned they've got Ospreys, transport aircraft, and have also offered up the 3rd Littoral Regiment, and that's been on offer for a couple of days now. And I wonder if DOD has provided that writ large to the Hawaiian government?

GEN. RYDER: Yeah, so just to kind of lay this out -- at the top of the briefing here, I laid out the six mission assignments from FEMA, right, each of which essentially can entail a variety of capabilities that could be met by various aspects of the way DOD is comprised, whether it's active duty, Guard, Reserve, contracted, et cetera.

So as Combined Joint Task Force 5-0 meets with FEMA and they assess the situation and they look at what's needed, that is the venue by which DOD can say "here's how we can help do that, here's what we can do."

So -- and oh, by the way, the fact that CJTF 5-0 is being run by U.S. Army Pacific Command, they're right there. They understand what's in their backyard and they also understand that they have the full force and might of the the rest of the Department of Defense by reaching out to Joint Staff if there is a capability that's not in theater that's required.

So I'm -- we're confident that we're going to continue to receive those requests. We'll look at it, assess it, and make sure that we can support it, and if we can't, look at other opportunities or other ways to do that.

Q: And just to follow on that, is there any forward planning in place right now for use of some of these things that have been on offer? Again, I know for the -- at least the past two days, the Marines had offered up what you mentioned. Was there -- is there any plan in place for use of them going on after the search and rescue period, when it becomes more relief and recovery -- or is everything just kind of standby, waiting for somebody to ask for its use?

GEN. RYDER: It -- you know, again, I'd refer you to CJTF to really get to a granular level of detail, but conceptually, again, as any crisis situation evolves, as you shift from search and rescue and recovery to assessing the debris and debris removal and power requirements and long-term water requirements and all the myriad other things that it takes, is there a capability that we can provide to help? 

Firefighting is another example. If there's a situation where Hawaii's fire department has it and they don't need any specific support, you wouldn't just show up and start doing it because it's uncoordinated and could potentially create problems. So if they say "yeah, we need it," then we're right there and we're going to help do that.

But I'd encourage you to reach out to the CJTF and they can really get down to a granular level of detail.

Finally, before we conclude today, I just want to highlight some guests joining us today. We've got some Air Force students currently attending the Public Affairs and Communications Strategy Qualification Course at the Defense Information School at Fort Meade. These officers, senior non-commissioned officers, and civilians have been in the Pentagon today to learn more about how the Air Force, Space Force, and DOD level public affairs operations are planned and executed. And so we're glad to welcome them here today. Next time, they'll be doing this brief, but that's all we have. 

Thanks very much, ladies and gentlemen.